19. Landscape Design
I. Objectives Skip to I. Objectives This chapter teaches people to: Explain the basic principles of landscape design.
Describe the process of creating a landscape design.
Recognize the environmental factors that influence landscape design.
Identify design opportunities for water, energy, and wildlife conservation.
Recommend appropriate plants for a landscape given site and design conditions.
Understand the history of landscape design.
II. Introduction Skip to II. Introduction Landscape design is both an art and a purposeful process. It is the conscious arrangement of outdoor space to maximize human enjoyment while minimizing the costs and negative environmental impacts. A well-designed home landscape is aesthetically pleasing and functional, creating comfortable outdoor spaces as well as reducing the energy costs of heating and cooling the home. It offers pleasure to the family, enhances the neighborhood, and adds to the property’s value. With a little forethought and planning, the designer can maximize the property’s use and people’s enjoyment of it; establish a visual relationship between the house, its site, and the neighborhood; and contribute to a healthy local ecosystem. The planning process, possibly the most important aspect of residential landscaping, is often neglected. We can see the effects: overcrowded and overgrown plantings, lawns with scattered shade trees, a narrow concrete walk, trees and shrubs planted too close to structures (Figure 19–1), every plant a different species, or too many of the same plant. The result can be unattractive and may not serve the family’s needs. Good landscape design creates a satisfying environment for the user while saving time, effort, and money and benefiting the environment. In this chapter, we review the principals of design, including understanding the use of space in the landscape. These principles can be applied by using six steps to create an attractive, functional landscape. The steps provide an organized approach to developing a landscape plan, including an in-depth look at specific design considerations to improve the landscape environment. Appendix F gives a brief history of landscape design. To learn more about landscape design, refer to the additional resources at the end of this chapter. Scott S., Flickr CC BY – 2.0 × Figure 19–1. Mature size should always be taken into consideration when selecting plants. This tree is far too large for this tiny front yard, and is completely overpowering the landscape and the house. Scott S., Flickr CC BY – 2.0 Print Image
III. Design Principles Skip to III. Design Principles When we develop and implement a landscape design, we rely on a dynamic process that addresses all aspects of the land, the environment, the growing plants, and the user’s needs. This process ensures a pleasing, functional, and ecologically healthy design. Fundamental design concepts—scale, balance, unity, perspective, rhythm, and accent—form the basic considerations in design development. Simplicity, repetition, line, variety, and harmony are organizing principles. We use these principles to apply design concepts to landscape features, such as plants and hardscape materials. Understanding spatial organization is also integral to the art of landscape design. The resulting design is implemented in three-dimensional space. The space changes as we use it, as plants grow, and as nature contributes its full range of environmental conditions.
III-B. Understanding Space in Landscape Design Skip to III-B. Understanding Space in Landscape Design We customarily use paper or a computer to create a landscape plan. When we implement the plan, we build a three-dimensional space in which people engage. People engage in the world and are affected by it every time they venture outdoors. Landscapes are dynamic spaces—they are always changing. Plants change with the seasons, grow, age, flower, reproduce, and provide habitat for other creatures and species. In a well-calculated landscape plan, the designer addresses elements of space and change. Beyond this, our experience in a landscape becomes a major factor in the overall impact a place has on our lives. In landscape planning, better outcomes and richer environments can be achieved when we understand spatial definition and the importance of transition between different land uses and different planes of space. The world consists of three different planes of space that affect human experience. As we engage in the world, we are always surrounded by these three planes—horizontal, vertical, and overhead. As the volumes of these different planes change, the way we experience the space changes. In the landscape, for example, an enclosed space created by a dense canopy has a different feeling than an open pasture. One space is shaded and dark, while the other is sunny and open. Our purpose in understanding these differences is not to pass judgment on them. Rather, it is to accept that these different kinds of spatial experiences exist. We recognize that the more transitional spaces a person goes through in moving from a completely enclosed environment to a completely open environment, the more seamless and connected the experience becomes. Addressing the hierarchy, or order, of space and scale is also important. Specifically, land use can be determined by the scale of a space. Roads, for example, have a defined hierarchy. All lanes may be a standard size (large enough to accommodate one vehicle), but streets are designed to accommodate a certain amount of traffic. As such, a level one road such as an interstate may have four lanes in each direction. A level two road has only three lanes in each direction. A level three road has two lanes in each direction, and a level four road may have only a single road in one direction. By developing a hierarchy of land uses within a landscape, different landscape elements can be appropriately scaled to accommodate different activities and to create different experiences. For example, a level one path to the front of the house should be scaled to accommodate at least two individuals (41⁄ 2 – to 5-feet wide). As paths connect, they should gradually scale down in size. So all the paths that connect to the main entrance path should be level two (21⁄ 2 – to 3-feet wide). And paths in the landscape meant for an individual experience should be level three (1- to 21⁄ 2 -feet wide). Likewise, space designed for an individual is smaller than space for a small group or a large party. Spatial definition of the three planes of space also helps to enhance our experience. The more clearly defined the plane, the easier it is to interpret. For example, a walkway that is defined using a hardscape such as brick clearly sends a message to people that this surface is for walking. What prevents someone from walking on this path? If the horizontal ground plane is clearly defined, then people intuitively understand where they should walk and were they should not. What prevents someone from cutting through a landscape? A designer can change the horizontal ground plane to reduce unintended land use by planting a tall ground cover. The increased vertical plane makes cutting through the landscape and not using the designated path undesirable. Understanding three-dimensional space in landscape design is essential. Each plane of space and the transitions between planes are discussed in more detail below. We also discuss how to organize landscape spaces during the design process by using garden rooms, focal points, patterns, and geometry to create functional, appealing spaces. Horizontal Ground Plane The ground plane functions as the floor of the landscape. Examples include lawns, patios, terraces, decks, and walkways. This plane influences the route by which people move through and experience the landscape. Materials can vary significantly, including compacted soil; plant materials such as lawn or moss and ground covers; crushed gravel; man-made products such as concrete, bricks, and rubber; and wood surfaces and products like lumber, mulch, and bark chips. Figure 19–9 illustrates the use of different materials to define the horizontal ground plane for walking through the landscape. The lower path is defined using irregular flagstone set in screenings, while the upper path is constructed of wood. Note the elevation change of a single step. People risk tripping and falling when an elevation change is one step or less. To intuitively heighten our attention, the designer has changed the materials of the ground plane. In addition, the ground covers on either side of the path begin to build up the vertical plane. The path, therefore, is clearly defined. Imagine someone moving through the landscape and reaching the point before he or she steps up to a new height. Notice how the tree helps to create a gateway by increasing the vertical plane and adding an overhead plane. Our senses are heightened to pay attention to change. Notice how the elevated walkway is further defined with small posts that mark the walkway’s edges by a subtle increase in the vertical plane. As we pass through this gateway, notice how the vegetation that flanks the path also increases in height. This further defines the pedestrian corridor. We know where to walk. Vertical Plane Vertical planes create the outdoor walls, enclose the space, and serve as a backdrop to enhance other elements within the space. Vertical elements frame certain views both inside and outside of the space and terminate the sightline. Examples in the landscape include trees, shrubs, walls, fencing, lampposts, and pillars. The vertical plane is defined by building facades that create an outdoor hallway. The transition from the ground plane (defined by a lawn or walkway) to the vertical plane is created through the use of edging, ferns, and vines (Figure 19–10). Breaking down the space into its elements, the ground plane is defined by the brick walkway. Moving from the horizontal plane to the vertical plane, the vertical plane is built up with the introduction of edging on either side of the path, then with the ferns along with the vines and the brick. The walls terminate our sightline and direct our vision toward the terminus in the path and the change in land use up ahead. Vertical planes in the landscape do not need to be continuous to define space. For example, a repeating allée of trees, which can be used to define both a pedestrian and a vehicle corridor, is not a solid wall. The viewer mentally fills in the blanks in the allée to create the feeling of entering a tunnel. When trees and plants are used in succession and repeated, movement is created (Figure 19–11). One’s eye continuously moves to the next set of trees, and the user is propelled forward. Overhead Plane The overhead plane defines the ceiling of an outdoor area, and we often feel more than see. This plane serves as protection from the elements. Psychologically it provides a sense of shelter and protection. The feeling of “being under” creates a strong sense of enclosure. The overhead plane can provide an exceptional sensory experience from the character and color it creates as sun and shade patterns land on leaves. Our sensory experience also changes as the height of the overhead plane rises or falls with the tree canopy, with steps or paths that move up or down within the horizontal ground plane, and with the gradual transition that happens as we move from a completely open to a completely closed environment. Examples of overhead planes include tree canopies, overhead structures, awnings, and umbrellas. In Figure 19–12, the overhead plane is established by a continuous trellis with a repeating motif inspired by carrots. The trellis that creates the overhead plane includes colored plexiglass that casts a colored reflection on the walkway. The reflection changes as the sun moves across the sky. As the planted vines fill out seasonally, one’s experience of walking under the gigantic carrot trellis changes. Someone may even identify with a rabbit and wonder what it must be like to run through the garden undetected. The space goes from being open to being enclosed. Transitional Spaces Transitional spaces are the spaces that connect one outdoor area to the next; examples include doorways, hallways, and platforms. These spaces also provide transitions between the different planes of space. Well-defined transitional spaces use exposure to similar materials (such as plants and paving) to gradually introduce new spaces to people from one outdoor area to the next. Examples of transitional spaces or transitional elements include entrance gates, paving changes, planted alleys, gateway arbors, edging, and bridges. Figure 19–13 illustrates the use of a gateway as a major transitional element within a garden. Transitional spaces help to set the stage for the adventure of being in the landscape and moving from one place to the next. The scale of this gateway intuitively suggests that we are leaving one type of garden space and going into another with a different character. In the foreground, the horizontal ground plane changes as the Chapel Hill gravel paving meets the granite edging. The edging is still a part of the horizontal ground plane. As the paving meets the granite curbing, it begins building up the vertical plane. The vertical plane continues to grow with the increase in height created by plants. The paving also changes under the gateway to a gray flagstone paving pattern. As we move out of the structure, the horizontal ground plane transitions into informal gray crushed granite fines. Note that the gray color helps to create a transition among all these different elements. The large structure completely encloses the user. Despite the large size, the structure is scaled to human size and the volume of space is considerably smaller than the next space you enter. As we exit the structure, the volume of space increases as the overhead plane is determined by the height of the tree canopy. This is a very common pattern used in architecture. The feeling generated by this space is used in churches across the world. Imagine entering a church. The entrance corridor usually has a low ceiling. Then the overhead plane is elevated in the main body of the church, rising to become a cathedral ceiling that evokes an emotional response in the user, frequently one of awe. Garden Rooms A room can be defined as a space enclosed by walls, a floor, and a ceiling, as well as a place where activities happen. This same definition applies when describing an outdoor room, with one difference. The materials used to define an outdoor space are dynamic and in some cases lack a ceiling or overhead plane. Garden rooms are the destinations within a landscape. Even small properties have enough space to accommodate a single room. The scale should be determined by the room’s function. Is the space used for entertainment? Or is the space used by a single individual—say for reading? Who is using this space—young children, teenagers, adults? The character of the space can be defined using materials that address both the function and the users. Each plane of space should be defined. The furniture in the room should address the users’ needs and express the character that distinguishes the space. Examples of garden rooms include an outdoor dining room, vegetable garden, reading room, entertainment space, kitchen, fire pit, and playground. Figure 19–14 is a large outdoor room. We enter the room through a doorway created by a bump out of the building façade on one side and a half wall made of the same material on the other side. The ground plane consists of a different stone material. The mounted wall fountain is centered on the entrance into this garden room to grab our attention and entice us into the room. The fountain also muffles the sounds of voices as people engage in conversations. As we enter the room, the ground plane increases, the walls are moved back, and the volume of the space increases. The rhododendron planted above the wall further affects the scale of the space and increases the feeling of enclosure. The furniture color is influenced by the blue hues of the plants and stone. Figure 19–15 is an outdoor dining room for two. In this residential outdoor dining area scaled for two, the ground plane is defined with flagstones set in granite fines. The ground plane is defined differently from the walkway because the material has changed and the space has increased in volume. The edges of the patio are transitioned into the vertical plane with the granite curb edging. The plants immediately surrounding the patio are low growing and increase in size moving away from the patio. Both the perennials and the trees help to define the scale of the space. Notice how the ceramic pots repeat the color of the furniture. Focal Points Focal points consist of carefully placed objects that direct a person’s line of sight. Their purpose in the garden is to propel movement and entice the user to make a decision: How do I proceed at this bend in the path? Do I continue down the path that offers the same experience or choose the one that teases the senses by offering a sculpture, a specimen tree, a bridge, or an interesting boulder? When a focal point is well-placed on a user’s journey, he or she does not feel manipulated. The journey through the garden is like a story that starts when one enters the garden. The story continues as one moves through twists and turns along a path, guided by focal points that foreshadow what happens next. Eventually a climax in the garden journey occurs at a destination—the garden activity room. The story, however, is not over. It resumes as one leaves the room and the gradual transition out of the space begins to move to the next destination or to leaving the garden. In Figure 19–16, notice the blue building in the distance centered on the path. The building has an interesting roof line with a wind vane on top. Although we cannot see what it is, the wind vane grabs our interest from far away. More than likely, curiosity drives us to discover what is ahead. Figure 19–17 is our focal point destination. On arriving at the wind vane, we discover the quaint colorful building, which houses the restroom for the garden. While the building is a strong focal point that functions as a driving force within the garden, smaller objects within the garden—such as garden art or plant specimens—also serve to propel us on a journey. Pattern Language Pattern language is a philosophy developed by Christopher Alexander (Professor Emeritus of Architecture at the University of California, Berkeley). Pattern language describes recognizable patterns in nature and human society that have developed over the ages and impact the way people live. Dr. Alexander defined the concept of a pattern language in the 1970s and spent his career studying patterns in the landscape created by nature and in society that influence lifestyles, communities, and architecture. His books, including The Timeless Way of Building and A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction, have influenced the way designers (architects, landscape architects, interior designers, and planners) create the spaces we use in daily life. As a result, Professor Alexander’s ideas have affected millions of people. The number of patterns that can be observed and experienced daily is innumerable. Incorporating patterns into the garden experience enhances the user experience. In Figure 19–18, a window garden is a pattern that brings the outdoor environment closer to home. A window garden breaks up the built outdoor facade, and it changes the view of the outdoor environment from the outside and inside of the building. The human eye is trained to see what is in the foreground and tends not to notice the things faraway as much. In Figure 19–19, an edible garden is a pattern built on humanity’s agrarian roots and driven by activity. To live, people must eat. The ability to sustain ourselves by growing food is empowering. Figure 19–20 provides a bench in the garden for sitting. It seems like such a simple pattern. Yet magical life experiences take place on benches—engagements, first kisses, lunch. A bench provides an opportunity to become a part of the garden, not just an observer in the garden. A garden seat is used if there is a view, something of interest around it. It is not used if a view does not exist. Garden Geometry Geometry is part of the everyday world and influences the places where we live. A direct relationship exists between two objects on a plane. Because this relationship exists, a landscape designer must pay attention to the architecture before situating new objects or creating new spaces. Regardless of the geometry selected (for example, rectilinear, curvilinear, radial, or arc-tangent), the space and proposed objects must relate to the existing architecture (Figure 19–21a-d). The first image is a bubble diagram used for determining best locations for required activities and how much space those activities need, and for studying the relationship and circulation between activities and locations. The next step is determining which layout (geometry) is most appropriate. The following geometries (that is, curvilinear, rectilinear, angled rectilinear, radial, or arc-tangent) are all based on the same bubble diagram. Note that everything in the bubble diagram remains the same. Only the SHAPE of each element changes. Invisible guidelines extend out of the building at different angles of different degrees. A grid can be formed using known points on the architecture, such as the corner of the building, the center line of the window or door, and the edge of a porch. Objects placed in the landscape should have a direct geometric relationship with the building and with each other. For example, by placing a specimen tree on the centerline of a bay window, the designer ensures that the tree becomes a focal point for users looking outside into the garden from within a building. It is important to understand that there are many ways of creating space in landscape design. No one method works for each landscape plan. A carefully laid out landscape plan with defined planes and transitions combined with good geometry and including objects that relate to garden features and buildings enriches our experience and the environment. Michelle Wallace × Figure 19–9. A horizontal ground plane changes from a stone path to wooden platform. Michelle Wallace Print Image Michelle Wallace × Figure 19–10. This vertical plane is defined by the two brick building facades. With a clearly defined path, this space can be called an outdoor hallway. Michelle Wallace Print Image Michelle Wallace × Figure 19–11. The trees define the vertical walls of this space. The trees were selected for human scale in this pedestrian path. This same pattern is often used to define vehicular corridors for cars but the trees are scaled larger for vehicles. Michelle Wallace Print Image Michelle Wallace × Figure 19–12. An overhead plane defined by these iron sculptures. These sculptures will act as trellises as vines grow to cover and shade the walkway. Michelle Wallace Print Image Michelle Wallace × Figure 19–13. This archway is a transitional space inviting you to step through and experience another part of the landscape. Michelle Wallace Print Image Michelle Wallace × Figure 19–14. A large outdoor garden room that can accommodate several people. Michelle Wallace Print Image Michelle Wallace × Figure 19–15. An intimate outdoor dining area scaled for two people. Michelle Wallace Print Image Michelle Wallace × Figure 19–16. A distant focal point, note the blue building at the far end of this path. Michelle Wallace Print Image Michelle Wallace × Figure 19–17. This is the focal point destination. Michelle Wallace Print Image Michelle Wallace × Figure 19–18. A window garden pattern. Michelle Wallace Print Image Michelle Wallace × Figure 19–19. A vegetable garden pattern. Michelle Wallace Print Image Kathleen Moore CC BY – 2.0 × Figure 19–20. Garden seating as a pattern. Kathleen Moore CC BY – 2.0 Print Image Anne Spafford × Figure 19–21a. The bubble diagram is for determining the best size and location for wanted elements and traffic patterns. Figures 19–21b-d play with the SHAPES. Notice all the bubble elements stay in the same place, and stay fairly consistent in size. Anne Spafford Print Image Anne Spafford × Figure 19–21b. A cuvilinear layout having rounded lines and pathways to the items shown in the bubble diagram Figure 19–21a. Anne Spafford Print Image Anne Spafford × Figure 19–21c. A rectilinear layout using straight lines and angled pathways to represent the items shown in the bubble diagram Figure 19–21a. Anne Spafford Print Image Anne Spafford × Figure 19–21d. An angled rectilinear layout uses the straight lines of Figure 19–21c but on the diagonal. Anne Spafford Print Image
IV. Six Steps to a Landscape Design Skip to IV. Six Steps to a Landscape Design In the first part of this chapter, we introduced the principles and concepts that underlie landscape design. In this section, we focus on the mechanics of developing a landscape plan. Planning a residential landscape begins with evaluating the entire space and the overall desired effect of the final design. We begin the design process by determining the user’s needs and desires and the site’s environmental and physical conditions. With this information, the desired features—such as trees, shrubs, grass, walkways, parking areas, a vegetable garden, patio, deck, mailbox, screening wall, and outdoor lighting—can be organized into a cohesive design. By using the following seven steps, we can take a straightforward, organized approach to developing and implementing a landscape that reflects the user’s wants and needs and allows for future growth and change.
IV-A. Step 1: Develop a Base Plan and Site Inventory Skip to IV-A. Step 1: Develop a Base Plan and Site Inventory Step One: Develop Base Plan and Site Inventory A base plan is a bird’s eye view of the site drawn to scale. A plot plan of the property, as shown in Figure 19–27, is an excellent place to start. Sometimes a plot plan is provided when property is purchased. If not, check with the local county assessor’s office or the NC County GIS, Tax and Deed website. The plot plan should include property lines, show the placement of the house on the property, and indicate the driveways, easements, and any other limitations. Be sure to check for any setbacks or streams on the property that could have their own set of legal parameters. Locating the exact property boundaries is important when a fence is part of the final design. Most property boundaries do not extend all the way to the road. Plants or hardscape installed in a state, county, or city right-of-way, such as between a sidewalk and the road, may be torn up for roadwork or to access utilities. Next, gather and record information on the property’s history. What was there before the current house was built? What is the history of land care? Was the property previously farmland? Have old buildings been removed, potentially leaving lead paint or plumbing behind? See AG-439-78, Soil Facts: Minimizing Risks of Soil Contaminants in Urban Gardens, for specific design strategies. Use the plot plan to develop an up-to-date inventory of existing built features (such as the house, power lines, septic tanks, underground utilities, exterior lighting, and roof overhangs) as well as existing plants and beds, landscape features, and hardscape locations on the site. The height, style, and exterior elements of the home, as well as the construction materials used, should be noted to help with design decisions. Measure and note on the plot plan any other structures and hardscapes that may have been added, such as patios, driveways, or sidewalks. When all of the information has been gathered and marked on a rough sketch, transfer it to a final base plan. Make sure to draw to scale. Depending on the size of the property, a suitable scale, for an average homeowner landscape, is 1 inch equals 10 feet (or 1⁄ 10 -inch scale). For a small property or courtyard a 1⁄ 4 -inch scale may be more appropriate. Other popular landscape scales are 1:4, 1:5, 1:8, 1:10, 1:16 and 1:20. Scales of 1:4, 1:8 or 1:16 match the common increments used on a conventional ruler, but scales of 1:10 and 1:20 are used by engineers and landscape architects. Suggested symbols are shown in Figure 19–28. Be sure to indicate a north arrow on the plan. Locate any existing features on the property and the house, and be sure to include the following items: Aboveground and underground utilities (See “Locating Utilities” below.)
Windows, doors, and other openings, including height off the ground
Existing healthy, meaningful vegetation that makes an impact (To accurately note the location, use a triangulation method. See sidebar.)
Other vegetation that may be moved to a different location (Eyeball this vegetation, but do not bother to triangulate.)
Utility meters, drainpipes, water spigots, outlets, septic tank
Features on or near the property line
Anything else prominent on the existing site Mark these features on the base plan as shown in Figure 19–29. Locating Utilities Call 811, a free utilities location service, before you complete the base plan and 48 hours before digging is scheduled (Figure 19–30). This service notifies the electrical, phone, gas, water, and sewer utilities to come and mark the property. A different color spray paint is used for each utility. Generally, the utility line is located underground in a 5-foot zone around the marked line, 2.5 feet on either side of the line. These areas should be considered “no digging zones.” Utilities should be marked when the base plan is being developed as some design decisions may be based on where lines run. The service must return and mark again before landscape installation if the lines have faded. Figure 19–31 is an example of what can happen when utility lines and right-of-ways are ignored by a gardener. Triangulation Triangulation helps accurately determine the location of existing trees and shrubs on the property so they can be marked on the base plan. To triangulate, use two known fixed points. Corners of a house or other structures, walkway corners, or mailboxes are good places to start. Measure to the center of the plant from these two locations and make note of the distances. Use a scale to transfer these plant centers to the base plan. Tips for Drawing on a Base Plan Have adequate paper to write on. Or better yet, make several enlarged copies of the plot plan to draw on and record measurements.
Enlist the help of a partner. Having two people hold and read a measuring tape is much easier.
Use a long measuring tape or invest in an inexpensive measuring wheel if the property is large. Piecing together measurements because the tape is too short can lead to errors. A 100- to 200-foot tape measures most things in an average yard.
Record measurements carefully and legibly to avoid having to re-measure. Inventorying the property and recording existing structures and features of the landscape also provides an opportunity to identify the positive and negative aspects of the existing landscape. One goal of effective landscaping is to create a definite relationship between the house and its environment. Note plants that should be retained and worked into the new landscape or planting. Some trees and shrubs may simply require pruning, while others may need to be relocated or removed entirely. Any neighborhood association guidelines and restrictions need to be considered. After locating the existing plants and beds on the plot plan, identify individual plants. A detailed evaluation of the negative and positive aspects of the existing landscape includes the following considerations. Consider the house and existing hardscape: What is the architectural style or character?
Is this new or established construction?
Is it one story or two (or more)?
Is it rustic or formal, modern, or traditional?
What are the construction materials? What color?
Are there walkways, walls, fences, patios, and decks that are improperly sized, in the wrong location, or in disrepair? Consider the views: What are the views both within and beyond your property line?
Where are the locations from which the landscape is viewed from inside and outside the home? Examples include views through a kitchen or sitting room window or from an existing porch or the street.
Are the current views pleasing, or would additional plantings or hardscape add more interest to that area?
Do any views need screening? Consider plant density: Are there “overplanted” beds or areas that should be thinned?
Are there sparse areas that would benefit from the addition of plants?
Are there random individual or small groups of plants scattered incoherently across the site?
Is there too much lawn or not enough? Consider mature size of existing plants: Are there plants that are or will become oversized, creating a hazard or high maintenance?
Are there undersized plants that look lost or out of scale and need to be moved or combined in a mass for better visibility? Consider environmental benefit of existing plants: Do the plants properly address the impact of sunlight on summer cooling and winter heating for the residence?
Are there any long-lived, native woody ornamental species, like willow oak (Quercus phellos), red maple (Acer rubrum), or bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), which are desirable and should be preserved?
Do the existing plants offer a biodiversity of species that benefits the local ecosystem?
Are any of the existing plants invasive species like privet (Ligustrum sinense or L. japonica), Japanese wisteria (Wisteria floribunda), Chinese wisteria (W. sinensis), or English ivy (Hedera helix) that should be removed? Consider health of plants: Do plants require minimal pruning, spraying, and fertilizing?
Are plants placed in ideal growing conditions—proper light conditions, soil type, and drainage?
Are plants showing signs of disease, chronic insect depredation, or environmental stress such as poor or stunted growth, foliage discoloration, or dieback?
Are the plants sited so that they do not compete for nutrients, water, and air circulation, which results in plant stress and disease?
Do any plants always seem to have one problem or another throughout the year, making them candidates for removal? Consider the landscape in the evening: Are there dark areas that could benefit from exterior lighting?
Would evening-blooming plants that have white blossoms or attract nighttime pollinators add interest to the yard? Consider design contributions of existing plant material: Do existing plant forms, textures, and colors contribute to coherent, unified design?
Do existing plants offer seasonal interest? Renee Lampila × Figure 19–27. A plot plan shows the property lines, utility easements, and the layout of the house. A plot plan should also contain a scale, a north arrow, and the address of the property. Renee Lampila Print Image University of Missouri Cooperative Extension × Figure 19–28. Any symbols can be used on a plot plan, these are some options. University of Missouri Cooperative Extension Print Image Renee Lampila × Figure 19–29. Existing features on the property including plants, hardscape elements, topography and features to take into consideration, such as drainage and the view of the neighbor’s house. Renee Lampila Print Image Cynthia Wagoner × Figure 19–30. It is free to have utility lines marked. Call 811 before any digging occurs. Cynthia Wagoner Print Image Danelle Cutting × Figure 19–31. These raised garden beds needed to be moved because they were planted in the right-of-way. Danelle Cutting Print Image
IV-B. Step 2: Conduct Site Survey to Identify Environmental Factors Skip to IV-B. Step 2: Conduct Site Survey to Identify Environmental Factors Understanding the environmental factors that exist on a site is critical to designing a functional, healthy landscape. By accurately incorporating knowledge of site-specific environmental considerations into the design. we can create a landscape that is easier to install and maintain and is more ecologically friendly. The site needs to be carefully studied for more than one season. The environmental features, including sun and wind exposures, sight lines, sound transmission, soil conditions, water flow and drainage issues, and existing landscape, must be analyzed. The results can be noted on an overlay created by taping a sheet of tracing paper over the plot plan. Sun and Shade The way the sun affects the house and site at different seasons greatly influences the overall design. Good plant placement is based on knowing the sun’s direction at different times throughout the day as well as at different times of the year. The yard needs to be observed throughout the day to determine which areas receive full sun (more than six hours a day), partial sun, and primarily shade. Understanding sun exposure helps us make design decisions like planting trees to provide shade to a patio in the summer or recognizing that putting a vegetable garden in an area that receives only partial sun results in little fruit when it comes time to harvest. Assessing winter and summer sun angles, as shown in Figure 19–32, tells us where to leave open areas that allow the winter sun’s rays to heat the house and outdoor living areas. Wind Knowing the direction of prevailing winter winds is crucial for deciding where to locate a windbreak, which can be especially important in the mountains or on the coast. Understanding wind patterns is also important to refrain from including structures or plants in the design that block summer breezes from outdoor living spaces. Mark the source and direction of winds on the plan overlay to visualize where a protective wind screen should be added or where breezes should be allowed to enter the landscape unimpeded. Sights and Sounds Walk the property to note what is visible in various directions. Standing on the front step, is the view pleasant? What is the view from the deck in the backyard? Also note the source of any objectionable noise on the site analysis overlay. Think, too, about the views from inside the home and looking out into the yard. On the site analysis overlay, identify views on which attention should be focused, as well as those that should be screened. Soils The native soils in North Carolina vary from light sand to heavy clay. In addition, many families are confronted with the difficult task of landscaping in “urban soils” that may include mortar, bricks, sheetrock, plywood, plastic, and other leftovers from construction. Often during the construction of a home, the top layer of soil is removed, leaving compacted subsoils mixed with construction debris that are unsuitable for plant growth. Have the soil tested, and on the site plan make note of both the soil type and the topsoil depth. Evaluate the soil in several sections of the property as soil types can change over a short distance, particularly if there is a change in elevation. Water Review a topographical map of the site and walk the property to examine stormwater patterns. Look for evidence of erosion and note any poorly drained or low areas that remain wet for several days after a rain. For the areas with evidence of erosion, examine rainwater harvesting options to reduce the amount of water flowing through these areas after a rain event. Use cisterns or rainbarrels to harvest roof runoff and store it for later use (Figure 19–33). Consider contouring slopes to slow the runoff, minimize erosion and provide time for water to soak into the soil. Design options for addressing low-lying areas include installing an underground drainage system, building raised beds, grading, or planting a rain garden. Overall, by addressing these environmental factors, we can create a design that is in harmony rather than in conflict with the observed natural patterns. This strategy leads to a successful, attractive, low maintenance, and ecologically beneficial landscape. × Figure 19–32. The angles the sun tracks across the sky. In the summer, it is higher and has a more sweeping arch (solid circles) and in the winter it is lower (dotted circles). Print Image Kathleen Moore CC BY – 2.0 × Figure 19–33. A rain barrel is filled with a PVC pipe attached to a roof downspout. This barrel is close to the garden for easy access to water vegetables. Kathleen Moore CC BY – 2.0 Print Image
IV-C. Step 3: Identify Activities and Uses for Landscape Skip to IV-C. Step 3: Identify Activities and Uses for Landscape To design a landscape that is aesthetically pleasing, enjoyable, and functional, we need information from the people who will use the space. What are their personal needs and wants, what functions do they want the space to fulfill? What activities will occur regularly in the future landscape? Checklist 19–1 is a printable list of possible uses and activities to consider when planning a landscape. Ultimately, the activities identified for a given landscape provide direction toward a design that suits all the users. Planning Enough Space for a Deck or Patio A landscape wish list may be long. Adequate space to comfortably incorporate the items on the list is essential. In the case of decks and patios, it is better to go too large rather than too small. A deck or patio for outdoor entertaining should comfortably accommodate the maximum number of guests who will be using the space. Wall seating around the edge of a patio and built-in benches for a deck take advantage of space and limit the need for extra furniture (Figure 19–34). Measure outdoor furniture planned for the space and allow 2 to 3 feet of walking room around chairs. Using the plot plan scale, cut out paper patio furniture pieces sized to scale. Place and move pieces on the plot plan to help find an ideal location. People are accustomed to more elbowroom outside. Stake off the space to see if it is the right size, if the planned location takes advantage of good viewpoints in the yard and beyond, and if the site is out of direct traffic patterns to and from the house. Ugardener, Flickr CC BY-NC – 4.0 × Figure 19–34. This small patio area extends its seating options by providing a flat topped wall. Ugardener, Flickr CC BY-NC – 4.0 Print Image
IV-F. Step 6: Installing the Landscape Skip to IV-F. Step 6: Installing the Landscape The final plan ensures that all landscape work done on a property blends over time into the desired final outcome, creating a harmonious composition and providing physical and psychological comfort. Even with a completed plan, landscape development can be a long-term process. There is no need to develop an entire property at once. Completing the landscape over a period of several years might be economically more feasible and may ultimately improve the overall design. An extended installation time frame allows more opportunity to evaluate plants as they grow and mature and consider the impact and desirability of planned hardscape features. The additional time can also help better identify those parts of the landscape that supply essential functions and those that have to be installed before other elements of the landscape can be incorporated. By establishing priorities, we can implement the landscape in stages (for example, front yards versus backyards or hardscapes; then large plant material; then small). When you prioritize elements for installation in a landscape, consider user needs and budgetary constraints. Budget should always be kept in mind as costs of installing various landscaping features can vary greatly. If shade is needed for a patio area, the least expensive is to plant a shade tree and wait several years. At an increased cost, an arbor can be installed for instant shade. A large standing umbrella can be purchased at a modest cost. If the design calls for a grassy play area, a lawn can be started from seed in the fall or spring (depending on the turfgrass selected), and you can wait a season for it to be ready for use. For quicker results, you can choose the more expensive option of laying sod, allowing the grass to be ready for use much sooner. A landscape installation can be very simple or extremely complicated. Homeowners should evaluate the skills and materials needed for installation and associated costs to determine whether these are DIY projects or whether money and time would be better spent by hiring a professional. Permanent structures or large hardscape elements, including irrigation systems, outdoor lighting, stone walls, decks, pools, and patios, may require skills that go beyond those of the average homeowner. When the job seems too big, call in a professional, licensed landscape contractor. North Carolina state law requires that anyone using the title “landscape contractor” must be registered by the Landscape Contractors Registration Board. A landscape contractor must pass exams covering soils, grading, plants, and various other topics. Be aware, however, that anyone who thinks they can do landscape work can set themselves up in business as a “landscaper,” “landscape installer,” or “landscape designer.” Be sure to check references, visit other installations by the contractor, and check with the Better Business Bureau to make sure the contractor is licensed and bonded. Construction Materials We often think of landscaping and planting as synonymous. But landscaping also includes the incorporation of several important hardscape features, such as walls, patios, outdoor lighting, walks, and decks that are integral to a design. Although most people evaluate the success of landscape development in terms of the selection and condition of the plant materials, most well-designed landscapes contain a balance of construction and plant materials. Carefully designed and executed paved surfaces, fences, walls, overhead structures, and edging materials are attractive, and they can reduce routine maintenance. Factors that influence the choice of materials include existing architectural and landscape features, cost, and sustainability. When selecting hardscape material, consider the principles of unity, rhythm, accent, and repetition. If possible, repeat materials and colors already used on the home. This achieves a major objective of good landscaping design: to establish a visual relationship between the house and the site. Use building materials that blend well in the local natural environment and relate to the home. For example, use wood shingles on a gazebo roof that match the home’s roof on a wooded site, or select stone for retaining walls that reflects a stone chimney in an area where the stone is found naturally. Natural construction materials often combine well with resource efficient landscapes. Weathered wood, natural stains, concrete, and earth tones in brick usually blend with existing construction materials and relate to the natural environment. The landscape materials can contribute to sustainability when we select renewable, local, and low-energy input materials. Explore options for using recycled materials and energy efficient materials in the landscape. Used bricks or broken concrete can be used for retaining walls. Recycled plastic material may be an appropriate choice for decking or fences. Consider the safety of re-purposing items before including them in the landscape. For example, the chemicals in creosote-impregnated railroad ties or lumber treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) can leach into the soil. Better options exist, such as untreated cedar, for use in gardens and near food crops. Consider any potential environmental impact of selected materials, both the impact of using them and the impact of their production, packaging, and marketing. Limit the amount of impermeable surfaces, which collect heat and increase stormwater runoff. Consider using a permeable paving system—such as gravel or pavers that have open centers for planting grass—for patios, walkways, and driveways to promote infiltration, improve drainage, and limit runoff (Figure 19–46). Select energy-conserving construction materials. Remember that light pollution is a problem in urban and suburban areas and even affects migrating birds, moths and butterflies. Eco-friendly lighting schemes use down-lighting and solar power, and turn off automatically when not needed. Irrigation systems may include precipitation gauges so they automatically shut off when nature provides water. Wood Wood construction offers a readily available and relatively simple way to create functional, pleasing outdoor garden features. Try to find lumber that is not warped or splintered and that has the fewest knots. Painting, staining, or sealing wood decks and fences prolongs their life. Selecting the proper kind of wood is important because the finished product must withstand adverse weather and insect attacks. The heartwood of a decay-resistant species such as redwood, cypress, or western red cedar is optimal for landscaping construction. Various outdoor grades of these woods are available, but all are quite expensive. Pressure-treated lumber is more economical and can be satisfactory for most wood projects. This lumber must meet certain standards for various uses and is marked accordingly. Several yellow pine species native to the South are used for treated lumber. The primary concern with using pressure-treated wood in raised-bed gardens has been with the arsenic in wood treated with CCA, chromated copper arsenate. In 2004, the EPA restricted the use of CCA, and it is no longer available to the public. ACQ is an alternative wood-treatment chemical that contains no arsenic, chromium, or any other chemical considered toxic by the EPA. Review safety guidelines for the use of pressure-treated wood available where you purchased the lumber. Some key recommendations include the following: Do not breath the dust.
After handling wood, wash hands before eating, drinking or using tobacco products.
Wash clothes separately before reuse.
Do NOT burn scraps of pressure-treated wood. Wood Alternatives Durable and low maintenance wood-alternative products made with recycled wood plastics and sawdust are commercially available. These products do not need to be painted, stained, or sealed and are as easy to cut and install as real wood. The use of composite wood materials made from recycled plastic and for decks and screening walls is very popular in modern landscaping. It is often three times the cost of pressure-treated wood, but it requires little to no maintenance. To save material when designing a structure to be built with lumber or a wood-alternative, try to use the entire board. Common lumber lengths are 8, 10, and 12 feet. Longer boards are progressively more expensive. A deck designed to be built with 10-foot lumber would be much less expensive than a deck built 10 feet 8 inches long. Also, remember that the structure must work with the outdoor scale. Instead of an 8-foot ceiling and walls 12 to 15 feet apart, outdoor spaces might be defined by a 25-foot-tall tree canopy or the backyard fence 75 feet away. Try to buy just the amount of pressure-treated wood needed as it cannot be recycled. Brick Brick is one of the easiest construction materials to use and is readily available. Building a simple walk, terrace, or patio can be a weekend do-it-yourself project. Laying brick on sand (with or without mortar) is an acceptable landscape practice. Aggregate concrete also makes excellent terraces and patios. Always keep in mind the life of the landscape. Products that cost more upfront often outlast cheaper alternatives.
V. Case Study—Think About IPM: Failing Tree Skip to V. Case Study—Think About IPM: Failing Tree You have a sick eastern redbud tree. It has black spots on the leaves and many leaves are dying and falling off. You are wondering if you can give it some type of fertilizer or if there is something that can be sprayed on it to get rid of the black spots? Review the five IPM steps summarized in this section and conduct some background research on the eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis). Monitor and scout to determine pest type and population levels. Accurately identify host and pest. Consider economic or aesthetic injury thresholds. A threshold is the point at which action should be taken. Implement a treatment strategy using physical, cultural, biological, or chemical management, or combine these strategies. Evaluate success of treatments. 1. Monitor and scout to determine pest type and population levels. This tree has been struggling for some time, but recently a noticeable black spot problem has appeared on the leaves. A sample could be sent to a diagnostic lab to determine which disease may be causing the black spots. But a more cost effective response simply requires digging a little deeper to reach the root of the problem. 2. Accurately identify pest and host. Use the steps outlined in chapter 7, “Diagnostics” to help you identify the problem. Once the tree species is confirmed, examine both the healthy and damaged leaves carefully. The following questions will help you accurately identify the problem. Responses are included in italics. Step 1. Identify the plant: I looked up “redbud” on the NC State Extension Plant Finder. I also checked some gardening books I own and I have a Cercis canadensis tree. Step 2. Describe the problem: The black spots started showing up three weeks ago and are spreading rapidly. The tree looks very sick. Step 3. Identify what is normal What does the healthy part of the plant look like? Bright green, lush leaves, with no spots. What does the unhealthy part of the plant look like? Leaves have between 3 and 20 black spots. The leaves are turning yellow or brown and are falling off. Have you had a soil test? No (information on how to submit a soil test see “Soils and Plant Nutrients,” chapter 1). Step 4. Cultural practices: Age and history of plant: It has been in the ground three years and over the last two years it has been declining. Irrigation: I watered the tree for the first summer, but now I don’t water at all. Fertilizer: I put some organic fertilizer on the last two springs but not this year. Maintenance: I prune off any dead branches in the fall and rake the leaves. I also put a layer of compost around the roots each fall. Step 5. Environmental conditions: Are there any significant water issues? Yes, we do get standing water for a day or so after significant rainfall (Figure 19–53). What is the soil like? It is a clay soil, very red. Describe the light. How many hours of sunlight? It is planted in a shady corner of the yard at the corner of the property. This part of the yard gets only 3 to 4 hours of filtered sun a day. Describe any recent changes or events: Sun exposure has stayed the same, but the neighbors installed a a fence last spring that is about 2 feet away from the tree. Step 6. Signs of pathogens and pests On the leaves: There are round black spots on the leaves and in the center of some there appears to be a small structure. On the stems: I do not see any evidence of insects or fungus on the stems. On the roots and in the soil: There is an ant nest near the base of the tree and I saw an cluster of eggs. There were also a few beetles crawling around. I detected a foul odor when digging near the roots. Step 7. Symptoms: On the leaves: The leaves are wilted and some are turning yellow or brown and falling off. On the buds/flowers: It is not flowering yet. On the stems: The branches where leaves have fallen off are dead and appear to have brown streaks inside. On the roots: I did not remember how deeply I planted it. When I scraped back the soil, I was able to remove 3 inches before I got to the “root flare” on the trunk. The roots were dark colored and slimy feeling. Step 8. Distribution of damage in the landscape: Are other plants in the landscape affected? No. Step 9. Distribution of damage on the plant and specific plant parts: Where is the damage seen on the plant? In approximately 50% of the canopy. Step 10. Timing: When did you notice this problem? The tree never took off after planting. It has been declining over the last two years and this spring it has really started to look bad. You hypothesize this plant is suffering from a disease because there were signs of disease and though you saw insects, none of them were actually on the plant itself. Because there are symptoms on the leaves, stems, and roots, you suspect that it is primarly a vacsular problem. It is not affecting any other plants in the landscape. Though you could send of a sample to the NC State Plant Disease and Insect Clinic for a diagnoisis of the disease, based on the facts gathered, poor cultural practices are likely at fault. The location of the tree is a primary concern. C. canadensis prefers well-drained soil and full to partial sun, not shade. You found three inches of soil before the root flare which indicates that this tree was planted too deeply. The heavy clay soil, and the fact that there is standing water for several days means the soil is compacted and that leads to root and vacular problems. The addition of a concrete path could have further exacerbated the root compaction. This tree is planted in the wrong place. 3. Consider economic, aesthetic, and injury thresholds. Although you would like this tree to live, it is not a prize tree that you are willing to go through heroic efforts to save. Furthermore, from looking at the samples, the injury is severe enough to warrant investigation. The tree is not going to survive without intervention. 4. Implement a treatment strategy using physical, cultural, biological, or insecticide control, or combine these strategies. Physical. It is a diseased tree and would probably not survive transplanting to a more appropriate location. It should be removed from the site. Review the steps to completing a proper site analysis outlined in this chapter. A good site analysis can help avoid these types of problems in the future. Contouring a yard can help mitigate standing water problems. Cultural. Many other plants thrive in shady, damp growing conditions. Matching a plant to the site is essential. Conduct a soil text and properly amend the soil before planting. Plant at a proper depth and provide regular maintenance including mulching, pruning, and fertilizing. Biological. There are no recommended biological controls. Chemical. There are no recommended chemical controls. 5. Evaluate treatment success. You have started a folder with your site analysis and landscape design ideas. Your garden journal helps you keep track of any new plants chosen as well as how they and existing plants are growing. John Whitlock, Flickr CC BY – 2.0 × Figure 19–53. A photograph taken after the rain. The redbud tree is at the corner by the neighbor’s fence. John Whitlock, Flickr CC BY – 2.0 Print Image
VI. Frequently Asked Questions Skip to VI. Frequently Asked Questions 1. Do you have anyone who can draw up a landscape plan for me? No. We cannot make a recommendation due to the time required and conflict of interest with members of the community providing that service in the green industry. NC State Extension has several resources to help you get started with planning a landscape, including Bulletin AG-508-2, How to Plan and Design a Wise-Water-Use Landscape. These resources are available on the NC State Extension website. Check your county Cooperative Extension center website for a list of upcoming classes related to landscaping design. 2. Where can I get a list of plants that grow well in this area? NC State Extension has a searchable plant database that lists plants appropriate for various regions in North Carolina. You can search by height, light requirements, flower color, leaf color, what a plant attracts, zones, and much more. 3. What is the difference between a landscape architect, a landscape contractor, and a landscape designer? A landscape architect is an individual who holds a professional license to practice landscape architecture through the NC Board of Landscape Architects (NCBOLA). A list of licensed landscape architects is available on the NCBOLA website. Landscape architects who are licensed in North Carolina must have graduated from a college program approved by the Landscape Architect Accreditation Board (LAAB) and have four years of experience in landscape architecture. A landscape architect has a seal bearing his or her name, certificate number, and the legend “NC Registered Landscape Architect.” Landscape contractors, who often also do design work, are licensed by the state of North Carolina. Landscape designers are not licensed or regulated by the state but there are other certifications they can earn. They may draw up plot plans, but hardscape elements or alteration of sites, including grading and drainage plans, should be prepared by a licensed professional. Anyone doing irrigation work has to be certified by the state. 4. Where should I place trees to maximize their potential to conserve energy? Trees help us save energy in many ways. To block solar heat in the summer but let much of it in during the winter, use deciduous trees. Deciduous trees with high, spreading crowns can be planted to the south of the home to provide maximum summertime shading. Trees with crowns lower to the ground are more appropriate to the west, where shade is needed from lower afternoon sun angles. Use allées of trees to channel summer breezes toward the home. To deflect winter winds, create windbreaks of dense evergreen trees or shrubs between the house and direction from which prevailing winds originate. Consider shading outdoor air conditioning units for maximum energy savings. Plant all trees far enough away from the home so that when they mature, their root systems do not damage the foundation and branches do not damage the roof. *If you have questions about this chapter contact your local expert at your county’s N.C. Cooperative Extension center.
VII. Further Reading Skip to VII. Further Reading Alexander, Rosemary. The Essential Garden Design Workbook: Second Edition. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2009. Print. Bales, Suzy, ed. Suzy Bales’ Down to Earth Gardener: Let Mother Nature Guide You to Success in Your Garden. Emmaus, Pennsylvania: Rodale Press, Inc., 2004. Print. Bender, Steve, and Felder Rushing. Passalong Plants. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press, 2002. Print. Bender, Steve, ed. The Southern Living Garden Book. Birmingham, Alabama: Oxmoor House, Inc., 2004. Print. Booth, Norman K., and James E. Hiss. Residential Landscape Architecture: Design Process for the Private Residence. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 2012. Print. Bost, Toby, and Jim Wilson. The Carolinas Gardener’s Guide. Franklin, Tennessee: Cool Springs Press, 2005. Print. Chaplin, Lois Trigg. The Southern Gardener’s Book of Lists: The Best Plants for All Your Needs, Wants, and Whims. Lanham, Maryland: Taylor Trade Publishing, 1994. Print. Chatto, Beth. The Damp Garden. 1982. London: Orion Books Ltd, 1998. Print. Chatto, Beth. The Dry Garden. 1978. London: Orion Books Ltd, 2002. Print. Cornelison, Pamela, and the Editors of Sunset Books. Landscaping Southern Gardens. Menlo Park, California: Sunset Publishing Corporation, 2006. Print. Cox, Martyn. Big Gardens in Small Spaces: Out-of-the-Box Advice for Boxed-in Gardeners. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2009. Print. Creasy, Rosalind. Edible Landscaping. 2nd ed. San Francisco, California: Sierra Club Books, 2010. Print. Darke, Rick, and Doug Tallamy. The Living Landscape: Designing for Beauty and Biodiversity in the Home Garden. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2014. Print. Eddison, Sydney. Gardening for a Lifetime: How to Garden Wiser as You Grow Older. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2010. Print. Fell, Derek. Vertical Gardening: Grow Up, Not Out, for More Vegetables and Flowers in Much Less Space. Emmaus, Pennsylvania: Rodale Press, Inc., 2011. Print. Francko, David A. Palms Won’t Grow Here and Other Myths: Warm-Climate Plants for Cooler Areas. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2003. Print. Halpin, Anne Moyer. Gardening in the Shade. Des Moines, Iowa: Better Homes and Gardens Books, 1996. Print. Hastings, Don. Month-By-Month Gardening in the South: What to Do and When to Do It. 2nd ed. Atlanta, Georgia: Longstreet Press, 1999. Print. Heriteau, Jacqueline. The National Arboretum Book of Outstanding Garden Plants: The Authoritative Guide to Selecting and Growing the Most Beautiful, Durable, and Carefree Garden Plants in North America. New York: Simon & Schuster Inc., 1990. Print. Ingels, Jack. Landscaping Principals & Practices. 7th ed. Independence, Kentucky: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print. Kellum, Jo. Ortho’s All about Landscaping. Des Moines, Iowa: Meredith Books, 1999. Print. Messervy, Julie Moir. Home Outside: Creating the Landscape You Love. Newtown, Connecticut: The Taunton Press, Inc., 2009. Print. Pick the Right Plant: A Sun and Shade Guide to Successful Plant Selection. Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books, 1998. Print. Polomski, Bob. Month-By-Month Gardening in Carolinas. Franklin, Tennessee: Cool Springs Press, 2006. Print. Reed, Sue. Energy-Wise Landscape Design: A New Approach for Your Home and Garden. Gabriola Island, British Columbia, Canada: New Society Publishers, 2010. Print. Reich, Lee. Landscaping with Fruit. North Adams, Massachusetts: Storey Publishing, 2009. Print. Shafer, Karleen, and Nicole Lloyd. Perennial Reference Guide. St. Paul, Minnesota: The American Phytopathological Society, 2007. Print. Smith & Hawken: The Book of Outdoor Gardening. New York: Workman Publishing Company, Inc., 1996. Print. White, Hazel. Sunset Hillside Landscaping: A Complete Guide to Successful Gardens on Sloping Ground. 2nd ed. Menlo Park, California: Sunset Publishing Corporation, 2007. Print. Young, Beth O’Donnell. The Naturescaping Workbook: A Step-by-Step Guide for Bringing Nature to Your Backyard. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press, Inc., 2011. Print.
X. Contributors Skip to X. Contributors Authors: Anne Spafford, M.L.A., Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Science and Adjunct Faculty Member Department of Landscape Architecture, NC State University Michelle Wallace, M.L.A., Extension Agent, Durham County Cyndi Lauderdale, Extension Agent, Wilson County Lucy Bradley, Lucy Bradley, Associate Professor and Extension Specialist, Urban Horticulture Kathleen Moore, Urban Horticulturist, Department of Horticultural Science Contributions by Extension Agents: Travis Birdsell, Donna Teasley, Julie Flowers, Susan Brown Contributions by Extension Master Gardener Volunteers: Renee Lampila, Margaret Genkins, Barbara Goodman, Jackie Weedon, Karen Damari, Connie Schultz Based on text from the 1998 Extension Master Gardener manual prepared by: M.A. Powell, Extension Specialist, Department of Horticultural Science Erv Evans, Extension Associate, Department of Horticultural Science How to cite this chapter: Spafford, A., M. Wallace, C. Lauderdale, L.K. Bradley, and K.A. Moore. 2018. Landscape Design, Chapter 19. In: K.A. Moore, and L.K. Bradley (eds). North Carolina Extension Gardener Handbook. NC State Extension, Raleigh, NC.
Authors Anne Spafford Associate Professor, Landscape Architect
Horticultural Science Michelle Wallace Extension Agent, Agriculture – Horticulture
NC State Extension, Durham County Cyndi Lauderdale Extension Agent, Agriculture-Horticulture
NC State Extension, Wilson County Lucy Bradley Extension Specialist, Urban Horticulture
Horticultural Science Kathleen Moore Program Assistant
Find more information at the following NC State Extension websites: Extension Gardener Gardening
This Landscape Design Chapter from the Extension Gardener Handbook discusses the principles design as well as guiding readers through the steps to create …